Afghanistan was founded in 1747.
The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919.
A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup & a 1978 Communist counter-coup.
The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime, touching off a long & destructive war.
The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-Communist mujahedin rebels.
Series of civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy.
Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City, a US, Allied, & anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama BIN LADIN.
The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution & a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. On 7 December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan. The National Assembly was inaugurated on 19 December 2005.